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Gharana Jaipur

Raghunandan Panshikar

About this album

'Gharana' is derived from the root word 'Ghar' connoting house, home and most appropriately family. The term is applied to the various schools of Hindustani classical music, especially khayal. The concept is closely linked to the oral tradition, the Guru-Shishya Parampara and to the ethos of the guild system, which continues to operate in the development and handing over of skills from father to son, in closeted traditions in many fields of Indian learning and expertise.

As Indian art music flowed along the millennia developing from gandharva to gana, and from prabandha to dhrupad to khayal, multifarious sub-traditions of raga music crystallized into several gharanas of khayal as we know them today. These lineages germinated around seats of patronage and often were named after them.

The critical factor individual styles of rendition, which acquired distinct and special aesthetic value, along with individual repertoires of compositions and even raga specialties. The styles of the gharanas often tend to be dominant creations of individuals, whose command over audiences has been extraordinary.

As Indian classical music moves into the 21st century, it is significantly redefining its position within the blitz of commercial music proliferation. The sensitive and subtle aesthetics of gharana individualities may merge into an electric approach. Yet, representing the aesthetic and functional value of heritage (virasat) -living tributes to centuries of disciplined artistic endeavor.

The gaikee of the Jaipur gharana is the creation of Ustad Alladiya Khan who, in the first half of the 20th century, was revered as the high priest of khayal by all schools. He belonged to an old and respected lineage dating back to the dhrupad era. The style created by the maestro is essentially characterized by a highly complex, exotic and exciting method of behlava which can be defined as medium paced phrases oven together intricately to merge raga and gaikee alankaars together. Continuity of mind, voice and breath through long passages of stunning complexity and beauty, emerging in spiraling waves, constitute the basic effect of this gaikee. The original style of alaap in akar anticipated the moulds of behalava and the final taans followed the same pattern to create a taan style considered the most complex and difficult in khayal.

Allodia Khan developed a highly individual repertoire of ragas and compositions for this school which has come to dominate the taste of a whole new generation of vocalists in the 80's and 90's. Madhyalaya teental and rupak are predominantly used in vilambit compositions. Interestingly the drut khayal formed almost no part in the original Jaipur scheme.

Raghunandan Panshikar is the most worthy disciple of Kishori Amonkar. A brilliant, gifted vocalist, the young musician has ably mastered the complex and radiantly intellectual style of his guru.

Tracks

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